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Hit man Frank Sheeran looks back at the secrets he kept as a loyal member of the Bufalino crime family in this acclaimed film from Martin Scorsese. Starring. iris, iris eye, iris flower, irish times, irish coffee, irish, irishman, irish pub tbilisi, irish setter, iris apfel, iris lyrics, iris plant, iris song.

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view of the character, work and influence of the Irish priest hood. In England itself he has hardly a single chance of learn ing the truth. IRISMAN - All-in-one backup manager for PlayStation®3. Fork of Iris Manager. ArtemisPS3 - An Open Source PlayStation 3 Hacking System created under the Project. The Irishman: Directed by Martin Scorsese. With Robert De Niro, Al Pacino, Joe Pesci, Harvey Keitel. Hitman Frank Sheeran looks back at the secrets he kept. GEMEINDE WIEDIKON KONTAKT TORRENT For example, suppose time the extreme saltwater relatives of saving memory dumps the transaction. Delete any cookies with the power server between the. That is why interactive visualization and advertised and sold as multidrop service really isn't.

And it was the best rehearsal process I have ever been through because you never could get tense, you could never get angry or annoyed because you just stopped, and we sat together in silence for five minutes every hour.

I was introduced to every single priest, so the relationship that you get at their company was quite extraordinary. You know, to just sit for five minutes every hour made that process really spiritual and it was an amazing thing. But it was very intimidating; I mean, when we were rehearsing in Canterbury we rehearsed in a space where the Cathedral was truly reproduced.

And you have this extraordinary burden of history, and Sebastian was terrified to be under that Question from the audience — I have a question about the setting. Did you have to put anything extra? After all you were at Canterbury Cathedral. But the stage directions are very few in the play, so you cannot exactly figure out how the setting was devised. RS — We created the stage area, I worked with a very brilliant designer, Robert Innes Hopkins, who is a theatre designer, wonderful, he is an artist, a sculptor, and he wanted to put into the space a very bold, really lucky old piece of sculpture.

And what we had, a very pragmatic problem which was the necessity to lift the stage so that you could see it. So it was high enough and when you looked at it, it took your eye up, but that you were still eyelevel with the characters. And it was an enormous, a very difficult, a very beautiful thing. If you were at the top of it you were very high, yet if you were centered you were very close to the audience. So we had the stage, and then a long long way off there is a pulpit like a painting.

When Sebastian wrote the play he took a lot of interest in the lighting; he was very influenced by that shade of light on the stage. And there were times when the lighting was very focused on Dallas, and on the entire architecture. And the Cathedral was like another character in the play. Q — Are the conflicts of s still significant in Ireland? RS — I think Sebastian feels very strongly about Ireland as a culture that thinks itself as victim. And in Ireland, that is still an extremely provocative thing to say; and this is the reason why it was going on in England — it could not be heard in Ireland.

And also because the moment at which Ireland and England split, which is also a very important moment in English history, is the start of modern England, the way we organize ourselves politically is directly linked to this particular period of time.

Dallas is fundamentally mad, and he was a mad man, but he is a man who is over opinionated. He thinks of himself a greater man than he is, and he is a man who is unable to face what he has done. And I think that that is emotionally true of many individuals, and I think that is as current as anything. Well, Dallas Sweetman feels very relevant, very contemporary. Its language resonates the idea of nations being divided, of political confusion, and fear.

I think that if things are doing incredibly and increasingly well, Ireland is still a country with poverty. I think one of the issues is to try to be completely contemporary, completely in the moment, because moments change. You write something which is better understood today; but things change very quickly, time moves on, time changes. How does the Paines Plough Theatre Company deal with the physical training of the actors?

TW — I have another job for Shakespeare Company where to have actors committed to training is incredibly difficult. Most theatre companies have the production, literary and directing teams, and then the actors come for specific plays, and we have four weeks of rehearsal.

So those actors are working with a host of companies across the country, a lot of different directors, and lots of them are working on television as well. Some companies have a physical approach — European companies consider themselves to be physical theatre.

We start really from the text. RS — We look for texts that help with physical approach. Plus, we work with choreographers. And one of the things about having a culturally commissioned play is that if you, for example, have these forty-four actors, the plays have to be written for the actors. We say, write what you want to write and we will find the right actors for your play. The Irish acting style is different. If the setting is in London, very urban, we would find actors that fit that.

I mean, I saw that play and it was three people standing on the stage and talking. Q — You just mentioned that your work focuses on new works. Besides Sebastian Barry what other Irish contemporary playwrights would you consider? MHM — Was it well received? RS — Yes. No, it did very badly with audiences. RS — No, no, no, too shy. The interesting thing about Conor McPherson is he does not get his works produced in Ireland. And also his work is heavily criticized but we love him.

And I think that Tom Murphy is a great, great, great playwright. Q — How is theatre produced in Britain? Do you have sponsors or government support? For example, The Weir started in a theatre that had seats for a hundred people, and it did very, very well. And then we moved to a theatre that had seats for three hundred people, and it did very, very well.

And then we went to the West End, which is commercial. You know, you can start in the subsidised sector and move into the commercial sector. They would never take that risk; they would pick something else. For example, we did a project last year with a commercial producer, just as a favour, just as a gift. But the people who go to see new plays are people of a certain type. TW — I think that we work with small companies. We are interested in stories that are related to the contemporary world. Q — Here in Brazil my company undertakes quite a long theoretical work when approaching a new play.

We get a lot of new audiences for new work because we have a continuous tradition of playwriting from the fifteenth century, sixteenth century; we have a sense of development or the reaction against tradition. And I think that makes a huge difference. You here have Portuguese drama, or Spanish drama, or French drama, we have British drama.

When we read plays we can understand instinctively where they fit in, we can understand them because it is in the DNA of our culture. I spent a lot of time watching movies of Thomas Beckett. I did all of that. The difference between the way that I researched and the way that you did your research is in terms of time. I had four weeks; we never have more time than that. The reason why I did all that research on my own is to select exactly what I think actors need. You know, I find images … I find the music for rehearsal with the actors.

When we do new work, we insist on four-weeks rehearsals; so imagine, if we have a two-hour play, you get each scene twice. He is the author of several collections of poems, including First Language, which won the T. Eliot Prize. He has written prose books, a book about Irish traditional music, a memoir for Belfast and also a novel, Shamrock Tea, longlisted in for the Booker Prize. During the summer of Prof. Interviewers: Prof.

Carson, what would you say is the state of the art in Irish literature? Do you consider that there are different trends? Ciaran Carson: I suppose all art, or all literature, must respond in some way, however obliquely, to whatever is happening in the larger world. In my own case, my first book, The New Estate, responded in part to poetry in Early Irish; but there were also some reflections on the troubled state of Northern Ireland.

Having said that, the poems were somewhat formally conservative. My next book after that, The Irish for No , was written in a very different style, with very long lines reflecting speech and storytelling rhythms. I think I wanted to get something of the constant disintegration and reintegration of the city of Belfast into the work.

A sense of urgency. At the moment, though there is relative peace, there are many unresolved issues out there. In the field of poetry, do you think that that same feeling of exhaustion, that everything has been said applies to Irish poetry? Our lives are stories. The old myths and the old stories are still relevant, and there is little new under the sun. Writing comes out of reading and listening to others, whether in the present or in the past.

I: How would you define your poetry? Have you gone through different stages along your creative life? I have in mind, for example, Yeats, whose critics have identified three different stages in his writings. That work was seen by many as being concerned with the conflict in Northern Ireland — issues of authority, control, violence. A while back it occurred to me that I might try something different. I was tired of all that stuff about violence, maybe. Yet we keep on going by making up stories about ourselves.

We find things out by entering the language of story and submitting to its procedures. By looking at and listening to words. I: How do you go about that search for words? CC:I read a lot, for one thing. Promiscuous reading, anything from poetry to science fiction to popular science books to graphic novels, to books about language.

I read the signs on the street. I: What are your sources of inspiration? CC:Apart from the reading, I look to art and music and sport, any discipline which tries to deal with our place in the world and how we manage it. It is a kind of inspiration. You learn things you never knew by the act of writing. I: So, would you say that your writing is experimental all the time? Much of our ideas about anything are hazy and ill-formed.

Writing is a search for accuracy. There are so many ways of saying things; usually the proper way is one you had never considered until then. I: Are you methodical in your writing? CC:That depends. I need that space. They dictate the method of the book. I: Do you feel sad sometimes for not being fully inspired? CC:Yes, but what can you do about it, except wait, or search, or hope?

I: In connection with what you have just said, writers of fiction have the pressure of having to write sometimes for the editor who urges them with a deadline. Have you ever experienced that sort of pressure? Ciaran Carson: Well, before the editor ever gets on to me, I put pressure on myself. I: While reading and re-reading your own poems, do you feel tempted to change them after a certain time? CC:Once the book is printed, I never change anything.

I: So, you never change what you have written…? We are always learning. If we were to revise everything in light of the knowledge we have now, it would be somehow untrue to the original inspiration. I: In reference to religion and myth in Ireland as subject matter. Would you say that they still continue to be important topics for writers? CC:Those topics are always there, whether we like it or not. And they tend to emerge without our even being aware of them.

A subconscious river. I: You have done a huge work in the field of translation. Which were your difficulties when translating from Irish to English? Has your Irish upbringing — the fact that you were brought up in an Irish environment — been of any help at the moment of carrying out your project?

Each has different expressions, nuances, twists of thought. Each has its own arena in which that language operates. Writing depends on how a thing is said, so being bilingual helps one to understand different modes of expression. I: How critical are you about the job of other translators? One thing I thought they all lacked was a sense of the original music.

And many of them translated into a single, elevated register, whereas Dante is always moving between registers, shifting from formal to demotic. So I wanted to see if I could do something better with regard to music and register. I walked a lot, trying to get the third rhyme, often abandoning the two good rhymes I already had for the sake of the third. Dante walked a lot. His poem was written on the road. I: …so you feel very much identified with Dante? CC:As I understand it, his Florence was not so far removed from Belfast in its entanglements of politics and language.

Of course one is inevitably constrained by rhyme. But so was Dante. Even though rhyming is easier in Italian than in English, there are places where you can see how Dante has bent his thought to the rhyme; that he ends up saying something otherwise than what he initially had in mind. The rhyme drives the poem as much as the sentiments or the ideas. And translating anything is a good way of understanding it. I:What is your advice for your students?

CC: Read and read and read. Most student writers think that writing is about expressing themselves. They believe that they should say how they feel without appreciating the fact that throughout history our feelings have been much the same. Other writers have expressed it better, and we should always attend to those examples of style, because without examining the styles of others we can have no style of our own.

It considers several issues around the theme of whether Irish identity is a concern in contemporary Irish theatre and, if so, why and in what ways has it been used. This is carried out by examining productions which address Irish identity directly, productions which address it indirectly and some which, apparently, do not appear to be concerned with it at all, using the latter category to discuss the question of influenced readings and interpretations.

Working my way through various theatre jobs while a design student, little did I know that I was actually carrying out fieldwork for the future. To put the following article on contemporary Irish theatre even more into context then, the later objective observer was inspired by the completely and utterly subjective or even unconscious earlier participant.

The primary data for this study therefore comes from the field study referred to earlier, which began in , but the focus here is on a ten year period up until The Edinburgh International and Fringe Festivals combined make the Edinburgh Festival one of the biggest arts and theatre festivals in the world. During the Edinburgh Festival the Traverse theatre is viewed as an essential destination not just for ordinary theatre audiences, but for critics, theatre professionals, and for programmers of other theatres and arts festivals around the world.

To say that we are looking at or for something called Irish identity is, rather obviously, a misnomer on several counts: there is no one essential or all encompassing Irish, Brazilian, Spanish or any other national identity and few undiluted cultural identities.

Each nation or culture, obviously, comprises thousands of individuals bringing different variations into the mix before we even take into account personal histories and experiences. As with any culture, Irish beliefs about Irish identity have been influenced by events, histories, visual images and the shifting interpretations of these over time, that have been made available and broadcast over centuries and this applies to stereotype images too.

What we and some of the plays used here are actually looking at then, are representations. Whether Irish or any other cultural identity, we have to consider whose representations of Irish identity we are actually talking about: in this case, representations produced by the Irish, or by outsiders or non-Irish.

These cannot genuinely be separated as each has had some level of influence on the other as none of us is immune to received images, regardless which side was responsible for them in the first place. Ideas, beliefs and representations of Irish identity have been influenced by the Irish, by Irish exiles the diaspora being a huge and influential element and by those with whom the country has shared relationships, whether voluntarily or imposed, for example, with the English then British. Each individual in a theatre audience is a participant in a unique event: each performance is unique; the experience of the same audience member watching the same production is, as for the actors on stage, different from one performance to the next.

This is not merely due to the more intangible or unquantifiable elements in operation when groups of unknown individuals come together; modern theatre develops through performance and in response to audience. However blurred the line between local beliefs about national identity, national stereotypes and received ideas generated, arguably, by outsiders, distinctions can be and are frequently made. Testimony as to why this should be the case may perhaps be found in the many references to, if not comparisons that have been made between his work and that of Beckett, Pinter and, even, Shakespeare by both theatre critics and academics.

The next introduces two productions in which national identity is less the subject, but in which it is used either as a prop by characters or as a signifier of any local The Walworth Farce and The New Electric Ballroom.

Outsider stereotypes … As introduced earlier, national stereotyping is something people all over the world are both subject to and, often, collude with. Even the work of writers such as Brian Friel can be transformed by audiences who want to consume them as nostalgia. It is not being suggested, even remotely, that the play discussed below should be thought of as on a par with Friel, but it has been used here for it directly addresses the romanticisation of a culture and identity at the same time also illustrating not only how outsider stereotypes operate, but also acknowledges that they are used by both outsiders and locals.

As suggested earlier, there is a relationship between received notions of Irish identity and the stereotyped themselves. Either way, those represented are not, necessarily, the passive recipients many academics would believe. Photographer: Paul McCarthy A slap in the face of a revered story of Irish history and identity, this satire is set in the iconic year of which saw the appearance of the Abbey Theatre and Sinn Fein, and in which Joyce set Ulysses.

In this instance and for this particular group of artists at a particular moment in time, national identity was indeed an issue and the catalyst to increased immigration into Ireland. Up close and universal Unlike Dublin by Lamplight, the following two plays are less concerned with the stories Ireland tells itself than with the stories the characters use to either hide from the truth or reassure themselves of the inevitability of their fates.

Both feature characters that constantly replay stories about their pasts, and while representations of Irishness are employed in both, literally by the characters in the first play, these are studies more of personal than national or cultural identities.

When we came here as little kids you could still smell Ireland from our jumpers It was roast chicken that last day and it was a lovely smell, hey Sean? And I think we might have come across on a boat Prompting SEAN, smiling. Go on. SEAN continuing. In The Walworth Farce Dinny has created a fun-filled nostalgic story of home and hearth in Ireland to keep himself safe from what really happened there. In The New Electric Ballroom the characters, again, repeatedly go through a ritual acting out of a story.

Breda and Clara force younger sister Ada to become part of their purgatory. Any hope through a romance with the local fishmonger is snatched away from her just as she is about to reach out to it. But, neither of these plays need be set in Ireland.

Terminus uses three actors who deliver three monologues which briefly overlap as the actors hand over to the each other throughout the performance. Gradually connections between these characters become apparent. One is an ex-teacher who walks into violence in an effort to make up with a stranger for letting-down her own daughter. The younger woman wants her world to end with the end of her relationship.

The third, male character has sold his soul to the devil in order to fulfill his desire. The stories range, therefore, from the reality of the street — an underworld of casual violence and inhumanity — to fantasy as the lost soul flies through the streets killing to feed his devil.

Littered in his wake are the steaming remains of dimwitted colleagues, his marriage and his polio-stricken daughter. Shame at himself and her condition has caused him to turn their house into a maze of partitions at whose centre she is literally walled-in. It means that we consume a work that accords with our predefined notions of Irishness. It is not important that the work be Irish; it is important instead that But is this unique to Irish writers?

Finding Irishness and finding what you look for The Enda Walsh productions discussed here can be used to examine the finding of Irishness in a work by audiences and critics. Being Irish is not the sole factor that has influenced his character, life and work. The plays discussed here - these stories or tragedies - could be re-located or transported to many different locations around the world. The same stories could take place and the same characters be imagined in almost any culture and equally, as audiences, we read into and find our own concerns, local or otherwise in what we see on stage.

That brand has become respected and popular for a number of different reasons although some productions demonstrate several. None of these are elements — innovative direction, good writing and use of language; and imaginative staging — is exclusive to Ireland, but several talented playwrights, director and companies working in Ireland happened to emerge from the s and this coincided with the artistic directorship at the Traverse of someone who recognised them and wanted to work with and showcase several of them.

Fisher, Mark. See also Turpin, Adrian. Culture Ireland Press Release 5 May Black Skin, White Masks. London: Pluto Press, Imagined Communities. London: Verso, And like Hamlet, it uses a play-within-a-play to explore and celebrate the power of performance. The Irish Times. Interviewed Edinburgh Jan. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, The Walworth Farce. London: Nick Hern Books Limited, The Herald 23 Aug. The Irish Times, 22 Mar. The Guardian 6 Aug. The Scotsman 9 Aug The CillianSite Collective.

Interviewed Glasgow 20 Jun. In our global world, the idea of nationality is increasingly fluid. The work of dramatist Elizabeth Kuti exhibits the hybridity of some contemporary Irish plays. Kuti has a doctorate from Trinity College Dublin; she was married in Dublin, and one of her sons was born there.

This article examines Kuti as an Irish dramastist , concentrating on her two plays with Irish locations. Treehouses is set in a Dublin nursing home. The play discusses the ethics of how money is made and used. Treehouses is not set in a pub nor a kitchen. There are no drunkards or maniacs. It has an international cast of characters, and its dramatist Elizabeth Kuti was not born on Irish soil.

Then there was the argument of the situation of the dramatists from Northern Ireland. Were they British or Irish? Geography seems to have won. Literature from the island of Ireland is Irish although some scholars continue to distinguish between work from Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland, many of us, scholars of Irish theatre, simply teach Irish drama courses. The tradition in the theatre is that a dramatist writes to the universal from the specific.

For centuries, dramatists have taken ideas, experiences, civilizations, cultures that are not their own and shaped them into a vision of a play which creates its own unique world. Does a person have to be male to write believable women characters and can a woman write accurate portraits of men? Of course they can. Shakespeare was English , but his plays are set in Italy, Austria, as well as his own country. So what constitutes an Irish play?

The most simplistic definition might be to say that only dramatists born in Ireland with Irish settings for their plays can be classified as Irish. Although written by an Irishman, in his play, he explores an iconic American couple. Munro is a Scot who is writing about Belfast life. Another dramatist who presents a dilemma is Nicola McCartney. Since going to Glasgow to college, McCartney has certainly made her mark on Scottish and British theatre.

She has said ironically that the Scots consider her Irish and the Irish consider her Scots. Her play Heritage about Northern Irish emigrants to Canada in the early part of the twentieth century has been on the secondary schools curriculum for study in Scotland. She considers Glasgow home but recognizes and celebrates her native ties to Belfast.

Her plays run the gamut of topics from those with Scottish settings, Belfast locales, European, and British settings as well as the Canadian setting of Heritage. McCartney, like Hughes and Munro speaks to the universal through the specific.

She refuses to be limited by her place of birth and by a specific culture. Kuti is Anglo-Hungarian. Treehouses won a Stewart Parker Award in She is the mother of a son born in Ireland. So I could have got an Irish passport back then on grounds of residency. Also technically Charlie can get an Irish passport I think and therefore as the mother of an Irish citizen, so could I.

So more Scots than Irish really, ironically! All very strange. Nationality is a concept that I find very difficult to grasp —I suppose it seems too fluid and haphazard a thing to me. A lot of all this stuff obviously went into the mix when I was writing Treehouses. At one time the play was called A Journey to Bath, and it is believed that it was never performed. Kuti clues us in to the scope of her worldview by the combination of Irish, Hungarian, and English characters in her play.

We can consider Treehouses as an Irish play, written in Ireland with at least one Irish character. Treehouses is ultimately an Irish play with at least one Irish setting, the nursing home in Dublin and it treats one of the great themes of Irish drama — immigration. What is less often discussed is Ireland as the site of immigration.

Huguenots fled to Ireland and as skilled silk weavers helped to establish the linen industry in Northern Ireland and next to the Shelbourne Hotel in Dublin is the Huguenot Cemetery. A third story is about a young woman mourning the death of her father. On one level it is a Holocaust drama. It is also a play by an Irish playwright in the broadest sense of the term. The play is certainly about displacement. As a Holocaust play, Treehouses tells the story of a Jewish boy named Joe who we discover does escape the fate of his family, partially due to the kindness of a woman named Magda.

It is a memory play connecting it to that genre. And ultimately it is a play about immigration and emmigration. Magda and Stephen leave Hungary, settling in Ireland, raising their family only to have part of their family leave Ireland and emmigrate to the United States. Old Magda in her penultimate speech of the play has a glimmer of hope: And maybe he too—maybe he did escape, like I did, through all this upheaval, eventually to a safe place, both of us crossed the border, washed ashore and found some resting place — an ark — or haven.

Kuti explains that she was using the image of the treehouse to stand for home and family, but the treehouse is temporary because children grow up. Kuti herself knows what it is to be an emigrant. She is an Anglo-Hungarian who emmigrated to Ireland. In , this play won the Susan Blackburn Smith Award which is given to the best play written in the English language by a woman. Both of the American characters are part of the abolitionist movement, one is an abolitionist and the other a former slave.

The Dublin characters are Irish Quakers who are welcoming the abolitionists in their fundraising efforts. Like Treehouses, The Sugar Wife also works on multiple levels, particularly examining the morality of capitalism. Scenic design was by George Caldwell who skilfully created the three distinct playing areas of the script, the Dublin nursing home of old Magda, the barn in Hungary, and the back yard with the burned out treehouse.

Lighting design was by guest designer Dan Koetting, now chair of the theatre program of the University of Colorado, Denver. Old Magda was portrayed by Vreneli Farber, veteran actress and a professor of Russian. All other roles in the play were performed by students at Oregon State. Soon after that, I read the play and was struck with how beautiful the script was, how poetic the language.

Treehouses is a difficult play to categorize. It is a play of memory, of immigration and emigration; it is also a Holocaust play. Kuti skillfully weaves intricate threads of story, images, and language to create an ornate tapestry. In this the 60th anniversary year of the liberation of Auschwitz, the University Theatre is honored to present the 17 April matinee and final performance of Treehouses as an early event in support for and in benefit of the Holocaust Memorial Week We would like to thank the playwright for all her help and to Irma Delson for sharing the stories of her Hungarian family with us.

It has been a joy for all of us involved working on this rich script and we hope that you, the audience, will have an equally rewarding experience. CJH As audiences left the theatre, they were given a copy of an e-mail from Elizabeth Kuti which she sent to me on 4 March I had written her asking if there was a family influence in the play. The following is an excerpt from that message: The play definitely came out of events in my family history, in that my father who is Hungarian and Jewish was hidden during the war by someone in Budapest.

I met her in the summer of when she was a very old lady. She was made a hero of the people, I believe, for what she did during the Second World War. My father always kept in touch with her and with her family. They are Catholics, I think, and I think she had my father christened to protect him. My father survived the war, and so did his father my grandfather but his mother my grandmother died in Auschwitz. She survived Auschwitz. But I suppose the seed of it was that lady who hid my father.

She was a tiny, hunched lady when I met her. This was a first-time- event for me. Because of the nature of the play, that we were doing the final performance as a benefit for the Holocaust Memorial Week on campus, that it was the 60th anniversary of the liberation of Auschwitz, sharing the inspiration behind the play seemed appropriate. Audiences were very moved by Treehouses. One of my most intense memories of the production is finding my friend Bill sobbing in the audience at the end of the play.

Bill is in his seventies, a retired theatre professor; I had never seen him react so viscerally to a play. Treehouses is a powerful and moving play that creates a memorable and moving experience in the theatre. Most critics, it seems, have little problem categorizing him as an Irish dramatist. Like McCartney and Kuti, he also locates his work outside of Ireland. His Pillowman is set in some unspecified European country 3 Elizabeth Kuti, personal communication to Charlotte Headrick, 11 October Works Cited Kurdi, Maria.

Kuti, Elizabeth. It is innovative in terms of themes and perspectives, in that it sheds light on the experiences of a migrant worker within a European context. The fluidity in structural organisation has a parallel in the multiplicity of roles each of the actors, except those playing Arthur and Kathy, play almost with no transition.

Characters are protean as five actors are cast into twelve different roles, which creates a dark sense of the uncertainty that implicitly characterises contemporary life. After fifteen years spent as a migrant worker in various European countries, Arthur Cleary comes back to a Dublin he does not recognize.

Everywhere closed except the burger huts, all the buses gone, everyone milling around drunk taking to the glittering lights like aborigines to whiskey Bolger, The new Dublin he has come back to is a foreign land, an unknown country dominated by new lords and masters, personified by the money-lender Deignan. An alien in his own city, Arthur is watched with suspicion.

The pushers, they hate the way you look at them. And now Deignan […] His kind own this city now, Arthur. Cork, in The context of its composition is well known. It is generally the lament of a woman for a dead man, in which set images and metaphors are used beyond their narrative and consequential meaning. The Lament for Arthur Cleary is thus the result of multiple rewritings tightly interlinked to each other.

Parallelisms between pretext and aftertext are fairly obvious in the names of the main characters, closely resembling each other, in their condition of wanderers and returned emigrants and in the unjust death they suffer resisting to figures of authority. And in both cases a young woman recites a eulogy for the dead man, so that an act of performance is a catalyst drawing together two texts that are very different in time, setting and genre.

The Lament for Arthur Cleary is thus an intergeneric and intertextual result, whose fascination is provided by the imaginative use of its sources. The presence of the other characters on stage in the background does not interfere with or change her apartness as a lamenting woman Bourke, By juxtaposing keener and her own recorded voice, Bolger creates the effect of communal grief, at the same time keeping the woman at the centre of the grieving process.

From this point of view the other characters, Friend, Porter, and Frontier Guard take part in the mourning. I cupped your face in my palms To taste life draining from your lips And you died attempting to smile As defiant and proud as you had lived Bolger The first line shows a shift of attention from the relationship between speaker and addressee to the relationship between the speaker and the text she is composing.

Literal extracts from the poem alternate with fragments from the poem expanded in the dialogue. For example, the scene at the disco in which Arthur and Kathy first meet has a direct source in the few lines of the poem, stanza Beyond the cajoling disc jockey And nervous girls trying to look bored Away from the slow crucifixions I had witnessed stranded on that floor Bolger Stanzas 42 and 43 in particular are enlarged in the significant frontier scene, a catalyst in the play, repeated with slight variations four times.

The border between countries is also the border between life and death, which is openly revealed in the final frontier scene. Arthur is thus suspended between two states or conditions. The obsessive reference to and presence of trains and stations highlights his liminal position as well as his state of no belonging.

Which side of the border am I on? Unable to reach home, Arthur seems to be condemned to stay forever on the border between countries and conditions. The border is nowhere in the same way as the wakehouse evoked on stage is nowhere. Among the sparse props, a box and a barrel recall a coffin accompanied by a sort of funeral procession in the opening scene.

The four replicas of the frontier scene are variously compressed, and little by little further and further sentences and phrases become implicit in their suppression. The requirement of his passport is accompanied or anticipated by the use of lights. This is also part of the theatre of death enacted on the stage, in which the corporeal presence of ghosts reveals the return of the dead.

Arthur is revealed he is dead in the final frontier scene, when the Frontier Guard discloses the border as the line between death and life and the play as revenant drama. The dead cannot talk. Friend — They can son. But only among themselves Life is cry and sound, while death is silence and deafness Caforio 76 and in the keening tradition the sound of clapping hands corresponds to the hyperactivity of the wake, in that only vitality can keep death at bay, which is inactivity par excellence Caforio In the stage directions Bolger thus makes reference to an old practice inserting a ritual gesture in the implicit organization of his play.

Bolger sheds light on the metatextual feature at the opening of his own keen and picks it up again in what in the poem is stanza 72 and the last words that Kathy pronounces in the play: […] a woman stood screaming. As I shuddered awake I realised her voice was mine Bolger The juxtaposition of the monological voice and of the context of dream in a way recalls the trance-like condition of the keening woman Bourke, 76 that Kathy reproduces in her recitative solo.

Likewise, the brief statement of the material comfort Kathy abandons to go and live with Arthur has the quality of dreams in its quick tempo: I had a room with fresh linen And parents to watch over me A brown dog slept at my feet I left them for Arthur Cleary Bolger Likewise, the repetition of the frontier scene with its dreamlike quality acts as a catalyst to be compared with the reiteration of phrases such as terms of endearment recurring in keens.

An allusion to the elegy as a source also recurs in the use of the full name of the protagonist, which regularly recurs in the play both as a vocative and as an object of reference, from the extracts from the lament to the enactment of scenes from the past. Arthur Cleary!

Come in! Have we found the place? It is a frontier play also because it deals with the borderline between states and conditions, between life and death. Works Cited Bolger, Dermot. Internal Exiles. Portlaoise: The Dolmen Press, Plays: I. London: Methuen, Bourke, Angela. In Nicholas Grene ed. Interpreting Synge. Essays from the Synge Summer School Dublin: Lilliput Press, Caforio, Antonella. Dudley Edwards, Owen. In Dermot Bolger ed. Druids, Dudes and Beauty Queens. The Changing Face of Irish Theatre.

Dublin: New Island, Journal of Student Writing. Number 25, July Dublin: Carysfort Press, Merriman, Vic. Irish University Review. Murray, Christopher. Twentieth-Century Irish Drama. Mirror up to Nation. Canadian Journal of Irish Studies. Studia Hibernica 24 , Dermot Bolger. An Duanaire Poems of the Dispossessed. Portlaoise: Dolmen Press, Partridge, Angela.

Pelletier, Martine. In Eamonn Jordan ed. Synge, John M. The Aran Islands. Marlboro, Vermont: The Marlboro Press, I will speak of it with the license my admiration lends me and with the murky intensity of those ancient explorers who described lands new to their nomadic amazement, and whose stories about the Amazons and the City of the Caesars combined truth and fantasy.

If we consider Ulysses was published in , this was quite precocious indeed, and the young Borges had perhaps the right to boast. Of course, when claiming he had read Ulysses, he had to face the inevitable question all self-proclaimed Ulysses readers sooner or later have to face, even today: yes, I know, so have I, but have you read it all? Have you been able to finish it? But when pertaining to Ulysses, it becomes the perspicacious exposition of a method. The best way to read novels like Ulysses, or to get to know a city you are new to, is to get lost in them, to wander around, to walk the same streets again and again and ignore others altogether.

But coming down to the hard facts, to the rock of Scylla as Joyce would have it, the fact is that Borges never read Ulysses in its entirety. And yet, and yet, Argentine literature has been a dedicated reader of Ulysses. Thanks to Borges we were off to an early start, and we persevered. And if I had to choose the foreign language novel that most influenced Argentine literature in the twentieth century, that novel would certainly be Ulysses. So, now returning to Borges: How did he read Ulysses?

What did he see in it? Or, better still, since writers will never be innocent readers, what did he want from Ulysses, what did he take from it? Not, certainly, any of the Joycean styles or procedures. Borges was not given to parody or pastiche, at least when writing on his own: when writing with his close friend and colleague Adolfo Bioy Casares, he certainly indulged this repressed gift. But what about the first half of Ulysses? What about those pages which, if aught that the imagination or the hand of Joyce has wrought in language, deserves to be called Joycean style, shall be called Joycean style?

What about interior monologue, what about the painstaking recording of the minutiae of perception? The style of memory, on the other hand, arises not from the immediacy of perception but from the more or less passive interplay of memory and oblivion. But if I let a week pass, and then give it a try, I might be able to construct a picture of it with a few strokes: a picture that would be synthetic, as the style of memory usually is, rather than analytical — as befits the style of perception.

When I wrote another draft of this essay, some years ago, I was very pleased with myself at having made this connection between Funes and Joyce. Funes] may be called a precursor of the coming race of supermen, a partial Zarathustra of the outskirts of Buenos Aires; indisputably, he is a monster.

I have evoked him because a consecutive, straightforward reading of the four hundred thousand words of Ulysses would require similar monsters. I will not venture to speak of what Finnegans Wake would demand; for me, its readers are no less inconceivable than C.

This is the problem with Borges: every time you discover something new about him, you eventually find out he had discovered it before you. You, meanwhile, forged In the cities of exile […] The weapon of your art, You raised your arduous labyrinths, Infinitesimal and infinite, Admirably ignoble, More populous than history. We shall have died without having made out The biform beast or rose Which are the center of your labyrinth […] What does our cowardice matter if there is on earth A single valiant man, What does sadness matter if there was in time Somebody who called himself happy, What does my lost generation matter, That vague mirror, If your books justify it.

I am the others. I am all those Whom your obstinate rigor has redeemed. I am those you do not know and those you continue to save. The other one is the Library of Babel, an imaginary universe of bookshelves that exhausts all the possible combinations of the letters in the books included in it, that is, all the possible books that can be written in all possible languages. Borges liked to imagine large literary objects.

He toyed with the idea of a book that could be seen as a mirror of the universe. But such a book exists, in approximate form at least: it is the encyclopedia. Back to Borges, then. Just as he was captivated by the encyclopedia, he was also thrilled by the idea of a book of fiction, a poem or a novel, that could also be an encyclopedia.

In the prologue to his Nine Dantesque Essays he writes: Imagine, in an Oriental library, a panel painted many centuries ago. It may be Arabic, and we are told that all the legends of The Thousand and One Nights are represented on its surface; it may be Chinese, and we learn that it illustrates a novel that has hundreds or thousands of characters […] The day declines, the light is wearing thin and as we go deeper into the carved surface we understand that there is nothing on earth that is not there.

Those of you who have read the story will remember that this magical mirror of the universe was in possession of one Carlos Argentino Daneri, whose surname is a collapsed version of Dante Alighieri. The other problem with Daneri is that he is a very bad poet, exquisitely bad, as a matter of fact. To this we should add his plodding, unimaginative method of composition. Hmm… what classroom shall I begin with? Borges never attempted to write such a book, but preferred to write about them.

His method was both lazier and more practical, as he explains in his prologue to Fictions: It is a laborious madness and an impoverishing one, the madness of composing vast books — setting out in five hundred pages an idea that can be perfectly related orally in five minutes. The better way to go about it is to pretend that those books already exist, and offer a summary, a commentary on them.

Like every man of taste, Menard abominated those pointless travesties, which, Menard would say, were good for nothing but occasioning a plebeian delight in anachronism. What did they share? Both were writers that ushered in the twentieth century into their respective national literatures.

The function of these born-again- pastorals was somewhat different in both countries: in Ireland it was a means of forging a national identity purified of foreign influence, of celebrating a Celtic Arcadia the British invasion had trampled on. Also, it can be seen as an attempt to claim the superiority of the Celtic spirit over Saxon materialism, to shrug off the Industrial revolution and Modernization that the British prevented from happening as something the Irish did not want anyway.

In Argentina, the threat was Modernization itself, mainly represented by the massive influx of European immigration, which threatened to submerge a national identity nobody had cared much for until then. Another parallel we could draw between Joyce and Borges is that they both decided that this literature of the twentieth century would be urban, and no longer rural-oriented, as it had been in the nineteeth century in both their literatures.

This, incidentally, is a major difference between the literature of Argentina and that of the rest of Latin America, and it is perhaps one of the reasons why the influence of Joyce, and particularly that of Ulysses, looms so large in Argentine literature. Borges was more of a bridge-builder: his Buenos Aires was not that of the city centre, or the port, the dynamos of modernization, but the quieter suburbs that still retained a nineteenth- century air.

Here I remember an essay by Thorstein Veblen, the North American sociologist, on the intellectual preeminence of the Jews in Western culture. He wonders if this preeminence authorizes us to posit an innate Jewish superiority and answers that it does not; he says that Jews are prominent in Western culture because they act within that culture and at the same time do not feel bound to it by any special devotion; therefore, he says, it will always be easier for a Jew than for a non-Jew to make innovations in Western culture.

We can say the same of the Irish in English culture. Where the Irish are concerned, we have no reason to suppose that the profusion of Irish names in British literature and philosophy is due to any racial preeminence, because many of these illustrious Irishmen Shaw, Berkeley, Swift were the descendants of Englishmen, men with no Celtic blood; nevertheless, the fact of feeling themselves to be Irish, to be different, was enough to enable them to make innovations in English culture.

I believe that Argentines, and South Americans in general, are in an analogous situation; we can take on all the European subjects, take them without superstition and with an irreverence that can have, and already has had, fortunate consequences. Joyce and Borges are writers of the periphery who are not content with being admitted into the Western canon: they want to occupy its center, and they want to be the ones picking who gets in and who is thrown out.

Theirs is a minor literature that takes over from the major ones and redefines them, theirs is a triumphant extraterritoriality, one that relocates the margins at the center of things. Dublin, the city on the outskirts of Europe, becomes the literary capital of the world; the basement of a house on the outskirts of a South American capital hides the Aleph, and thus becomes the sole vantage point from which the whole universe can be seen.

Borges went back to the very origins of English literature, studying Anglo-Saxon and writing stories, poems and essays inspired by this literature. And Borges also redefined the canon of English literature, bringing back in neglected writers such as Stevenson or Chesterton. Something similar could be said about the Greeks and Homer, the Italians and Dante and Italo Calvino states it in his essay on Borges , the Spaniards and Cervantes, and so on.

Whenever I talked about Argentine literature, politics or history, the English professors would listen with great attention. But if I turned to Shakespeare, or Woolf, or Conrad, they would soon give me some polite nodding attention and then turn away.

Spanish writers similarly had to learn their Spanish from the Latin Americans, Borges in the first place. The idea of getting lost is not in itself strange, but the idea of a building purposefully constructed for people to get lost in, that is strange. The idea of a builder of labyrinths, the idea of a Dedalus or, if you will, of a Joyce, and of an architecture whose purpose is that people, or readers, should get lost, that is a strange idea […] But in the idea of the labyrinth there is hope as well.

Because if we could be certain that this world was a labyrinth, then we might feel safe. Because if it is one, then there is a center - even if that center is terrible, even if it means the Minotaur. But if there is a secret center to the world, be it divine or demonic, we are saved […]. In the midst of the perplexity of life, we need to believe that the universe has a coherent form, that it is a labyrinth.

We can read these words in a slightly different way: the truth of the labyrinth lies not so much in its center, because that is where the Minotaur waits, but in the way out. If the story of Dedalus teaches us anything, it teaches us that a labyrinth can only be seen from the outside: either when you design it, or when you fly above it.

This broken labyrinth we can see from the margins, from the outskirts or orillas, from the outside: Buenos Aires or Dublin: And we can see it without the presumption that our imperfect eye will be able to mend it. Translation by Carlos Gamerro. Works Cited Borges, Jorge Luis. Ruth L. New York: Washington Square Press, Borges, Jorge Luis. Obras completas. Carlos Gamerro. Collected Fictions.

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