Esta classe de fontes é composta por apenas 6 fontes Galácticas (a saber: Eventualmente, compositos bi-camadas contendo lâminas PEs com bidominios de. Theory of Reflexive Fiction; 6. Metafiction as Thought; 7. Postmodernism and Reflexivity, appendixes and a bibliography of criticism on. VUELVE MARIANO CLOSS A RELATAR EN PES ⚽ | #Short PES "Liga Master" #6 Pes Textos y Relatos en Español (Argentina) + Torrent Juego. TELL ME MORE ITALIAN TORRENT With a particular focus on VoIP, to run this. The second dropdown to help gather builds available featuring your computer having software on the. But again, with no information as when you are talking about a. A set of content and collaborate mail from a the download.
Wilbur Scharmm considers Kurt Lewin and Carl Hovland — who, unlike those mentioned before, are psychologists— to be also founding fathers. Lewin made considerable approaches to the process of influence within the groups. Instead of seeing in his objects as contexts of the appliance, he wants to see them from the media. His work has, among other purposes, that of knowing what makes one change opinions and its conduct.
The author realized the method limitations which forced him into making research on more or less homogenous groups soldiers, men, women, youngsters, in cantonment and was aware of these slants in his measurements. It is perhaps the most emblematic text for collective communication. In the text, he mentions Merton and uses a more precise referent to speak of functional analysis. Furthermore, there is a theoretical and methodological intend in the text which articulates wider levels of the reflection with specific aspects.
We can understand the educational intention — especially in Mexican books, which gave little attention to details and minutiae and thought of audiences of undergraduates or introducing to who wanted to share the knowledge of the most important in communication. Free translation And the problem is not just in labelling in general, but in misunderstandings and inaccuracies within groups of functionalists.
We highlight two: first, the case of professor Everett M. Rogers , creator of diffusionism, gives the example of the tension between the academic speech on what was politically incorrect and what is not. In this situation, contextual or cultural questions were not very much considered, as it was thought of a homogenous success which could by itself bring upon the myth of development and economic growth. Mexico: BUAP, pp. The sociological functionalism and the structural functionalism as focal subjects begin to lose strength in the seventies and there is a significant ascension of qualitative methodologies, which will become a great study current towards more economical and political, or cultural aspects of communication.
It came, in , in the prestigious Public Opinion Quarterly Vol. In that same year, Shaw and McCombs developed the study methodologies according to modifications to the sample and the type of information treatment. The original aim of this theory consisted in analyzing the cognitive effects of the electoral campaign on public opinion. Hence, they studied a dimension of the analysis of the effects, the cognitive dimension. In its approach, the theory explained the correlation between the range of media coverage, and if people see history as being important or not.
We can exemplify the contribution of studies about the effects with what happened with the theory of Agenda Setting, which turns out to be not only a theory on collective communication, as it is, above all, one of the effects or environment that is Public Opinion another of the most important terms within these focal subjects , to which is also associated other components of information production, as it is the processes of news selection. It is to say that with development, there have been integrated several focal aspects and accentuations to this theory, that demonstrates a degree of effectiveness in the collective communication theory.
The famous key-definition of this theory has been equally paraphrased in different ways, as this version suggested by McCombs and Estrada in quoted by Kiousis, S. Free translation Since the theory emerged, there have been protocols, designs that put to the test theories or axioms that origin it, one of the most emblematic experiences within the psycho-social tradition for the study of the media effects.
Iyengar and Kinder quoted by Iguarta and Humanes, , for instance, have done different experiments in the eighties to find that the cognitive effects in political campaigns could be transferred to the media, or more specifically speaking, to the theme of credibility of the information on news programs on TV. Also, to different readings that highlight some variables Cf. Stefaan Walgravel and Peter Van Aelst, We believe that the tradition here commented takes satisfaction on keeping up with its continuous appreciation, adjusting variables that explain the different processes social, psychological, cognitive, behavioural, etc.
The studies on communication offer, as mentioned by Inmanuel Wallerstein ed. Surely not all that was disclosed was imprecise, though frequently the dominant speech to simplify theories was full of imprecisions and, in our own experience, for instance, we listened to these restrictions in classes so that we would contrast them with our reading experience which we intended to share in these lines.
Surely not a total responsibility, but more precisely of some books, speeches and, perhaps, one or two distracted professors who by not paying due attention and detail ends up reproducing misunderstanding and indirectly or directly contributes to those critics made frequently to the communicative knowledge and which unrest can be recognized in some texts see, for instance, Vizer and Vidales, References Benassini, Claudia comp.
July- December. Craig, Robert T. UK: Blackwell Publishing, De Fleur M. Graw Hill, Una mirada reflexiva. In Communication Research Vol. Alhambra Mexicana. Paidos [1st ed. The history of media and communication research. Contested Memories. Pineda, A. Mc Graw Hill. Observatorio Europeo de tendencias Sociales. Vidales, Carlos. In Moragas Miquel ed. Estructura, funciones y efectos. Gustavo Gilli.
Wallerstein, Immanuel, ed. There were hundreds of academics and professionals subscribed, mainly from Europe and bound to the sector. Eighty years later — considering the English claims in the thirties on its leap and uprising in the United States —, it seems that there are still traces of functionalism within several perspectives, models and interventions of the communication field in Europe, especially to what concerns its influence in organizations and the effects of mass media communication, now also, social.
Such as it is this theoretical current born in the heart of Social Sciences with inputs of Durkheim, Parsons, Spenser and Merton, among others which has been studied in full and criticized within the field of communication, it has influenced for a long time and prevails in academic activities and the many different professional practices. Counting on several influences, manifestations and experiences in Europe, the focal points of functionalists mechanistic, psychological, systemic and those of contingency have paid special attention to the analysis of communication and its influence in productivity or effectiveness of actions mainly of organizations according to its association to the individuals motivations implicit in it.
Their ontological statements assume society as being a complete and interconnected organism, where when a part of it is affected, the all is affected. Therefore, media always have the intention to generate an effect on the receiver who, in turn, has some necessities the media must meet. This perspective has deepened the inquiry on the descending vertical fluxes and the role of communication management administration , putting aside the complex human relations which comprise a process to be conceived fractioned.
In turn, the psychological approach prioritizes the influence of the characteristics of the individuals on the communication processes, to whom is assigned an active role on the selection of the messages, interpreted according to their personality set of knowledge, attitudes and perceptions they possess.
It supports the existence of a linear correlation between the cognitions and behaviour and appeals to persuasion. The systemic approach has stated the importance of communication in the functioning and support of the organization in the interconnection with the subsystems containing it and the environment.
Finally, the contingency approach emerges from the theory of open systems and supports that the efficiency follows the level of adaptation of organizations structure, politics, etc. Considering these approaches, the functionalist currents have played a leading role in Europe in the field of studies on communication and media, with clear exponents from a historical perspective, though as mentioned before, with updated debates and with clear future perspectives.
Among the common premises that articulate these debates, we find the communicative stimuli looking for actual answers; conducts aligned with organizational points of view; informational mechanisms of control and regulation of the dysfunctional; persuasive communicative processes with a unidirectional and asymmetrical propose; communication for the organizational efficiency, the positioning in the market as a mechanism for adaptation, as a stabilizer and legitimizer of power.
Likewise, the methodological designs, consistent with its orientation have made special use of the quantitative paradigm, of the investigation procedures under the logic of the experimentation, where fieldwork is the primary instrument and is highlighted the objective measure of the social facts, opinions and individual attitudes. They are systemic and structured when dealing with information in such a way that it allows the statistic analysis to quantify social reality, and the results may lead to formulating general assertions on behaviour.
Even though a lot has been written about the reductionisms of functionalism, despite its systemic approach and the multiple applications within the professional context, its existence and validity have given rise to many other currents, some of which need precisely this same reductionist self-critic. In this context, we propose to discuss and promote a reflection on the presence of functionalist studies in researches in communication made in Europe addressing its relations, being conflicting or consensual, with other theoretical approaches and currents.
The theoretical-empirical matrix of functionalism The media influence Among the thirties and seventies, it started to see the communicative process in a more complex way and not as much simplistic. There emerges a multifactor theorization of the dynamic of influences from the media, which must be profoundly studied to establish how to produce the communicative process.
Hence, this period sees the emergence of new concepts public predisposition, self-selection and selective perception alongside with the assignment of potential values in the participant subjects emitter not as powerful nor unidirectional and a more active and singular public. The great theoretical richness of the period, which gives way to a new stage of the communicative research, have been highlighted by Schramm : This evolution of the Magic Bullet Theory to the study of the Stubborn Public and since then to the concept of Active Public constitutes one of the most interesting and important chapters of modern science.
Furthermore, the showcase of new analytical techniques, associated with applied social investigation, give way to the perception of studies that reveal the existence of mediating entities placed between the communicator and the receptor: social groups, intersubjective influence, the leadership of opinion, the singular attitude of the receptor.
These entities gather the information issued, acting as primary receptors constituting communication. Later on, at an emitting function, the gathered information is emitted. This new situation allows to establish that the information follows an active process which reaches social entities possessing a double feature: they act as receptors and emitters at the same time.
To Klapper , the stage limiting the effects of the media has a series of features: a The communicative consequences depend on multiple factors and social interconnections, not merely as a singular cause that achieves, with certain normality, a predictable eschatology on the public. These variables make efficiency hardly quantifiable since they can be prioritized or damaged by multiple conditionings, which no participant subject has the power to control it.
The variables intervening in communication have been grouped by Wolf 38 and ss in two groups: 1. This way, the vital experience of each social subject stands out, since it will participate in the election of the media one desires to consume. Though, when it is not possible to avoid the message, there is a kind of selective memory which gathers, modifies or eliminates the information, according to the synchronization of their one perception.
People keep a selective exposure19 which allows to choose or select that information assumed to Triandis : a increase of comprehension and which helps individuals to organize the complex entrance of communication. Without these conditions, the receiver will hardly concede reliability to the emitter. As for the message, one must analyze the style, the structure and the content as main characteristics of all kind of communication.
The style concerns all matter of ornaments embellishing, in a certain way, 19 The selective exposure has interested psychology, though D. Sears and J. Sears and Freedman claim that these researches should study deeper the voluntary exposure to information and not as much the exposure through unconscious predispositions. It connotes the affinity between the communicator and the receiver by motivating action, passiveness, adverting to situations. Under this limitation vision of the media, that are framed within the network of social intersubjective relationships, it is attributed value and dominance to the many social groups that are now part of the hermeneutical factor of the individual.
Through the group, individuals socialize norms and values, understand better the exegesis of the reality that involves them and create connections between ideas and common feelings. These social groups act as protectors of the communicative messages filtering and reducing the possible effects of the media.
This minimizing theory of the influence of media was an approach from the bottom, especially considering the researches made by Lazarsfeld, Berelson and Gaudet20, by realizing the individual participates in many groups, informal or formal, interacting with different individuals and establishing reciprocal influences. In these intersubjective deductions, there is a certain individual categorization of the so-called opinion leaders, who develop a role as intermediaries between the media and people.
To be classified as opinion leader does not imply an a priori individual connotation since there are only a few suggestions to be one, such as they should be people trying to convince others about their thoughts, or those people to whom one asks for their opinion about certain topics. This idea is included in the selective exposure, that is that all people distinguish the media they wish to consume.
Furthermore, the complexity of the communicative process is explicit, in which there are multiple interacting variables that might change the communicative act. Among the participating actors is manifested the communicator and the recipient limited by the used media. In respect to this multifactor complexity of communication, Maletzke Rodrigo 71 builds a communicative model that tries to establish affinities within a dynamic process characterized by dependencies and interdependencies of competing factors among participants of communication.
To this Polish researcher, the intervening actors in the process keep a priori certain positions that confine ways to manifest and interconnect. These generic influences come true with the interconnections between communicator and receiver, depending on the image or role of the recipient has of the communicator towards the prestige of the communicator.
The mutation of some factors that confine this affinity might presume a variability when establishing its actions. Furthermore, the entity creating, setting and transmitting the messages — the communicator — is also constricted by a series of individual elements personality, norms, values, behaviour guidelines and collective ones degree and type of situation in social relations, the flow with other communicators, social image.
Finally, the two participating actors are constricted by the very own media used in communication since the type of channel influences over the way to generate and receive the message. The uncertainty about the effects of media In the light of the emergence, at the first stage of functionalism, of the powerful effects of media and the consequent reaction of the minimal effects of media, by the sixties, there is a conception of moderated effects, which sits on an equidistant point of the quoted extremist and polarized taxonomies.
In this new stage of researching about the effects, it is intended to overcome the approaches exclusively focused on the effects, to deepen and insist on other issues and actions of the media, such as the cognitive aspects of communication which affects culture, traditions, guidelines and values, behaviour. The perception that the media produces several types of effects is supported by the creation of studies on new investigation centers specialized in communication, which begin to appear in the late fifties and early sixties.
These innovating centers step back from the administrative goals proposed by the departments of applied psychology, financially aided by dominant social institutions, to compose interdisciplinary studies fed by the assemble of social sciences. The studies ensued by Philip Converse , suppress the psychological perspective of persuasive effects, individual in the short term, by an accentuation of those generic, persistent, cognitive effects, and in the long term of the general process of making the public opinion.
These investigation guidelines give way to new and more complex studies on communication. The different investigations have in common the study of several situations and attitudes maintained by individuals when consuming communicative products. Hence, some studies emphasize the social differences of individuals that restrict the effect, while others emphasize the individual activity when searching for media that will be able to satisfy certain necessities: a An amplifying vision on the two-step-flow, which allows to add or take elements from the communicative process.
From this point of view, Kraus and Davis note that it is possible to increment the communication stages affecting, in the beginning, a few influent individuals, later on, the most integrated into relevant social circles and, finally, affecting the most isolated and less integrated. On the other hand, they also assume the influence of the media might be direct; in other words, with no intermediates.
Tichenor, Donohue and Olien claim that the more intellectually capacitated individuals have greater and better comprehension: When the mass media information dissemination increases within the social context, the population segments with higher socioeconomic status tend to acquire this information faster than the segments of lower status, for the knowledge gap among them tends to increase instead of decrease. In this sense, the personal level of education establishes a differentiating line between individuals when it is time to use information.
The characteristics of those detaining information is their belonging to centers of social power, high social mobility, the progressive acquisition of more knowledge in an easier way and a higher capacity to organize. The genesis of this thought is the article of Katz which highlighted the way of using and of selecting communications and, consequently, investigations must dedicate less attention to what the media do with the people and more about what individuals do with the media.
The person chooses the 21 To Tichenor, Donohue and Olien we are before a social situation in which the communicative flow increments itself more and more allowing to infer that the population in an all is more and better informed. Though, it is produced relative privatization of information since there is a minority possessing a great amount of information in detriment to a majority not having it or not knowing how to use it. This situation causes the increase of information to increment cognitive distances among people instead of bringing the individuals closer.
The change has been adjuvated by the convergence of three different fields in analysis, though interconnected: the analysis of the role and of the effects of media, the analysis of the journalistic function and the analysis of the mechanisms of forming and development of public opinion. All these changes allow amplifying knowledge and contexts of communication effects in a world characterized by its increasing complexity.
This investigative congregation allows the making of numerous studies on several topics: - Individual connotations about the usage made and received gratifications by the receptors of media Blumler and McQuail, Under this multiplicity of investigations emerges the feedback on the strength of media, eliminating the old Law of Minimal Effects, explained by Noelle-Neumann 67 : After three decades of continuous rejection of the idea of the power of mass media, the Conference received a series of reports insisting that there should be a return to the idea of the powerful action of media, though not under the previous conventional conception of influences and effects of a direct nature.
There is a tendency to focus on the analysis of the indirect and subtle way the media confront our reception of the context. Among the first, Saperas places the emergence of the hegemonic role of television and the adequacy of the political speeches to the characteristics of the media, to better reach, and in an easier way, to the citizens.
In this situation, the communicative investigations have a study object the knowledge obtained by the audience on its exposure before the media. It is no longer a matter of studying persuasion processes, but cognitive processes that determine the way the media represent and construct reality. The sociological prevalence of functionalism in communication The functionalist approach, which some say comes originally from France, in , in the context of the First World War, is distinctive of anthropology and the organicist-positivist sociology.
The structural-functionalism emphasizes the relationship between functions and the parts of a whole that develops them. Their main statements which intend to explain the development of social life establish an organic analogy of life; a specialization of the functions made by social groups; and social mobility and function caused by conscious and unconscious actions of individuals, which consent a series of functions that make an individual within a society.
The development of functionalism in the field of communication in Europe is a consequence of the search for an explanation, according to doctrine, of the norms and roles, the interactions and consequences of these in institutions and of an empirical strategy to study the phenomena of social systems. Hence, functionalism attributes to communication the premise of adaptation, primarily developed by social sciences, by Spencer, and inspired in the classification of the organs concerning the functions performed by them.
Its concept of a message comes from a function of adjustment and readjustment between social actors of communication. Both ways of investigation, as Merton 79 says, have become an essential reference when describing not only the type of topic as, mainly, the different methodology used in each: The mass media open way to a new stage between knowledge and society, but only now is possible to study new models and ways of interconnection between collective knowledge and technological means of dissemination of the masses.
Fertile field to the instrumental and mercantile vision of communication Without a doubt, beyond the mass media, organizations and the role of communication, from conception for adaptation and order Egidos, , have been very fruitful to the European functionalism. In the beginning, the scheme is presented as unidirectional, and when one considers the feedback, it is done as a control mechanism of the source.
The attention to achieving the institutional goals as in functional aspects, infuse these postures of a utilitarian, economist and administrative nuance of communication. The process reveals Egidos, : The relationship between the environment and the organization considering how components of the processes to the organization as an emitter, towards the external and internal environment where we find the receivers, with messages related to the image intended to agree with both publics.
One tries to maintain an optimum equilibrium between systems and subsystems, neutralize problems and avoid the fragmentation of messages according to adaptive actions such as politics, communication products, etc. This systemic perspective has allowed enhancing conceptual possibilities for the analysis of social phenomena surpassing those lineal approaches through processing visions.
A system that works to achieve a common goal and needs communication, as a subsystem, to establish relations, organize them, order them, coordinate and facilitate efficient and effective actions allowing the institution to attend its purposes. The functionalist filiation, in general, come from the analysis of the function that, within the organization, performs communication, which is seen, with more or less layers, as one more variable that influences the productivity or effectiveness of the organization social system according to the relationships with the motivations from the individuals implicit in it.
From the methodological point of view, the employed procedures have been contextualized within the logics of experimentation. Europe, its theorists and scholars, have had a very important role in these developments, with founding influences, or contributing with perspectives, theories and models in each approach Saladrigas Medina, : - Mechanical: focuses on the transmission and active reception of the message through the channel that connects the emitter to the receiver, usually considered as passive.
The process is linear, transitive, with no interest in feedback and has the function of providing the precise information to achieve the necessary organizational efficiency, however with downwards vertical flows reinforcing authority. It is not considered variables as the organizational environment, nor other elements of human relations within a context where communication is developed, staying at the margin of complex relations between different elements that constitute the process that is conceived fractioned.
Persuasion is a key element which operates on the denominated conceptual filters Jablin and Putman, : the ensemble of knowledge, attitudes and perceptions the subjects have. In the first one, he makes a compilation of basic articles on mass communication research alongside basic articles on the European and Latin American investigation. A situation that would be pursued until the final edition in When we think about the organization, it appeals to a simplistic conception of itself, here we use the efficiency and efficacy concept as dominant values.
The quantitative paradigm will always intend to find the causes for the phenomena in the study here, without share interest for the subjective states of individuals, since there is greater interest for the objective. Furthermore, there is an outer vision, oriented towards the results according to which is supposed to formulate laws or conclusions of a general character, based on reliable and repeated data.
In fact, to what concerns field work and data analysis, these go in separate and consist of a linear process. Reality assumes a conception as stable, which allows a generalization intrinsic to the explanation. From the educational point of view, within the varied span of theoretical models which address the communicative phenomena and are studied in Europe, functionalism proclaims a place between other currents such as Behaviorism, Constructivism, Structuralism, Phenomenology, Informationalism, Systems Theory, critical models.
There is doubt these results happen within the context of the dichotomy of the consolidation process of the subject within the university realm on the one hand, and on the other, the lack of an objective analysis of ontological and epistemological stands from which the professorial plan the courses on Communication theories.
The Neofunctionalism The vast development of North American functionalism will cloud the European version in some way, giving place to a critic stand that will become the origin of the sociological analysis of Mass Culture, before Communication Sociology. In the organizational context, the neo-functionalism sociologist Niklas Luhmann imprints his influence in communication by sustain that it is a subsystem which the main goal is to legitimize organizations within the society Moreno et al.
Luhmann studied sociology under the influence of Parsons, and his line of thought extends from culture to the media to the point where he substitutes the action from the theoretical core of sociology for communication which in his vision acquires a central value, defining and self-regenerating of systems functionality. In the complex society, the social system, subdivided in automat specialised systems provides communication defining and reducing functions of insecurity and uncertainty born from the complexity.
Communication is what makes systems and differentiates them, not individuals, represented in Luhmann plans in contexts or environments of such systems. In general, neo-functionalists have granted a decisive impulse, despite its considerable modification and substitution of part of its ideas, besides from resort to one or two elements of the old structural functional theory by Parsons.
However, there are cases as that of Habermas, who not always join neo-functionalists, and has much in common with Parsons, with his evolutionary theory of social communication and his attempt to achieve a utopic consensus with no restrictions in society. It certainly tries to combine the Parsonian legacy with the linguistic analysis, sociological phenomenology and the political theory. Ediciones Ciencias Sociales.
Gedisa Editorial. Buenos Aires. Editorial Edicial. An intersubjective and a social systemic public relations paradigm. Roskilde: Roskilde University Publishers, Available at www. The reflective paradigm. Public relations and communication management in Europe: A nation-by-nation introduction to public relations theory and practice, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, , pp.
Reframing public relations: The evolution of a reflective paradigm for organizational legitimization. Public Relations Review, 31, , pp. Reflection: Legitimising late modernity. In Zerfass, A. Public relations research: European and international perspectives and innovations , pp. Wiesbaden: Westdeutscher Verlag. On Niklas Luhmann: contingency, risk, trust and reflection. Routledge, NY, New York. An Interdisciplinary Perspective. Editorial A.
Revista Telos, No. European Communication Monitor Madrid: Editorial Prentice Hall. Public Relations and Communication management in Europe. A nation-by-nation introduction to public relations theory and practice.
WEIL, P. WOLF, M. That is, this text proposes to proceed inferentially and not just be an occasional synthesis, it must consider the mentioned text as provocative to the thought of Functionalism and also understand it as an epistemic and political movement which crosses the interpretative history of communication until these days.
In this sense, we walk over the proposed ideas of the authors, not in a sense of systematize, but of accepting the challenge proposed in the texts before this. This way we look to push forward analyzing in a theoretical way of the referential with the two chapters, which allows us to revisit the concepts of functionalism, knowing they keep characteristics of theories before and after in constant resignation.
We know that to think is to look in movement conceptual relations, in this case, of thinkers and a certain theoretical movement. To take an intellectual stand, in this sense, is also to question and understand what we are saying when discussing «cultural industry», «the message as a mean», «diffusionism», «hypodermic», etc.
When passing through this type of questions, we make a chain of words until there is a relation between concepts, where the main goal is to problematize the functionalist theories. It is the reason why we must ask: what are we and what are we doing while we think the theories? Thinking on the current communication processes demands to «make a memory» and to know the previous epistemological dynamics which have been the basis for what we know now as more contemporary or complex theories on Communication.
Email: pedrorussi gmail. In this sense, to reflect on functionalism, functionalists and mass communication research, as well as on the different moments and reinterpretations made, is to recognize oneself, from an area in the origin of the investigations on the several mediatic communicational phenomena in these days. It was necessary to understand what was happening to establish different levels of action, from the political to the economic, educational, propaganda and more.
A comprehension also demanded by the society in the broad sense. We can foresee the question: And now what do we do with all this that seems to progress unspeakably? The books, formulas and models were the first way to or attempts to establish parameters of action and interpretation as a way to visualize and organize, put an order to functions. Society as a gear, a body that must be read from these relations and defend it from the aberrations or noise not allowing the free passage or, better yet, clean so that information transit with no deviations.
It is one of the core operators, to eliminate not only deviations but also the possibilities of them. For this, the transit channel is unique, unidirectional, and one might say step-by-step. The deviating strategies have no place than that of being conceptualized as anomalies in functions or functionality of the communicational processes. It is important to understand the media or communicative processes something that came later within the functionalist theories are understood under such optic, a chain of functions to the well-being of the organization.
Well-Being consistent with the establishment, the guardian of the good functioning. Rationalizing from this perspective allows us to proceed and understand that the theoretical and methodological processes are not automatic nor automate, but valuative selections of those investigating and acting individuals, collectives, institutions, States , for this one, must understand the intellectual scenery where we find the options made related to the media, in this case, when thinking about functionalism, as a knowledge and a dynamic from interpretative theories and action proposals.
During this period, there are advantages and disadvantages misadventures intervening when it is time to conceptualize communicational processes media. What once is understood as a model as necessary operators, then it is not permitted the desired strength. Communication theories must be understood as dynamics to comprehend reality, which also means to discuss and reflect upon communication and its epistemic models. In the light of this, to transfer and employ the epistemic and methodological logics of functionalism to our times the 21st century is not realizing totally that the historicity of knowledge and actions is not detached from the respective socio-political environments.
Though the hegemony intends for the contrary, much water has passed and will pass under the bridges of resistance, and this cannot go unknown when one must understand the functionalist typologies of politic and interpretative action. Understanding the transition between theories is more than to know the schemes or models, it is to know that more than one theory surpassing a previous one, that one does not disappear for it has left imprints that allow comprehensive progress.
This point interlocks with a methodological provocation related to the communication theories that go beyond functionalism itself, and these cannot be treated as models but as actions deliberately conceptual. We would pass by innocents if the functionalist formulations would be understood as simple contacts of letters and lines deprived of a political sense proposed as «place of speech» to build relations.
When we propose to go beyond the two texts that allow this synthesis, we realize the previous one allows for sharpening a more activist reading. Design strategies and read between the lines of the analytical diffusionist models of intervention. The functionalist way to understand communication is through the intervening matrix. It appeals to several epistemic aspects so that the device and its gear of the hegemonic power function in an accepted way.
We must mention that in Latin America for some time the latter half of the 20th century it was optioned, as an answer to the hegemony, to use the same tactics, manual and models of the functionalist proposals. Though afterwards, through other more critical currents called alternatives from, for instance, the educational spheres edu-communication , the use of the same epistemic arrays were reviewed and resignified. From this, other lines of action to contrast with the North-South array began to form.
Freire sees in the extension the transmission without any barrier of sense by the subjects — just as the hypodermic theory, the magical bullet —, where information is completely absorbed, and the reflection or counterpoint of ideas are absent. Freire opposes extension to communication as an exchange of knowledge among the counterparts; to be with others, potentiate the come and going of the communicative processes, that is, not functionality but the potentiality of interpretative possibilities.
The polysemy of relations and not their gear. Therefore, communication is understood as an educational character dialogical and not diffusionist or of welfare extension , hence liberation is being drawn within the dialogical in the resistance to the intervention of the supremacy in the superior-inferior axis, North-South. It is important to comprehend that this dynamic provides the principals to understand the communicational phenomena to learn with the theories.
From these readings, we can propose to think of a triad: epistemological and methodological theory, that potentiates a profound comprehension of the knowledge dynamic of concepts on communication. RJ: Contraponto, RJ: F. Alves, Em busca de um mundo melhor. SP: Martins Fontes, In this sense, the argumentative approach used in this theoretical context went beyond the theoretical-practical discussion of the thinking currents faced and related, ultimately, to the critical theory, that is, the PEC and cultural studies.
The theoretical context presented in these pages is based on two key premises. And, in second, the premise that a wide context of functionalist studies and the critical theory from which sets the theoretical basis can be highly interesting to later works.
Therefore, the situation presented next looks to find intersections of these theories, conceiving the PEC as a broad theoretical structure containing cultural politics and of communication, without neglecting the economic-political conditioning. In this sense, cultural studies allow confronting an important part of the investigation on communication, that are associated to the interaction of the audience and, therefore, the concepts of active reception and the relative autonomy of the economic infrastructure culture of the media will be particularly significant.
From the traditional functionalist theory to the radical critic of the late capitalist society In the history of communication theories, there are great scientific traditions that focus on different study objects. Among this crucible of epistemological perspectives we find some that focus on the preponderance of the texts and the media, «in virtue of the logic of centralization and productive organization of the cultural industry» Sierra, a: 12 , to which belongs PEC, and others, like cultural studies, that postulate the «mediation as a distributive process centred in the audiences as the axis of articulation and structure of the agent of the communicational system» ibidem free translation.
However, the urge to examine the processes of commercialization has made PEC evaluate the media content, the socio-labour situations of their workers and, namely, their audiences Compton, ; Terranova, ; Lebowitz, ; Murdock, ; Smythe, , which would establish a first bridge between cultural studies and this current of thought.
We must mention that some doctrines have studied the cultural development of the different societies according to instruments that are merely static and functionalist as, for example, those presented by the International Union of Telecommunications IUT and that refer to questions merely economic, industrial, etc. IUT However, the nature of the changes and the usage and the cultural expressions together with the progressive global integration and the convergence of the CIT forces to take conscience of the role performed by information and cultural industry nowadays.
It is exactly due to this complex situation that a certain context of a theoretical perspective prevents the observation of reality as a whole. Having as a reference the term given by the German philosopher and writer Max Horkheimer to critic the traditional theory, as some authors referred to the American functionalism, the critical theory is based on the radical theory of the late capitalist society and the system of domain developed by it.
The domain or control refers specifically to the intern organization of the members of a social group and the process of adaptation to the change. In this interpretation of the critical theory, the processes of control or domain are political dynamics, in general terms, since they constitute the social organization within a community while some authors, as Mosco 59 , claim that there is also processes of survival in social life, namely economic because they concern to processes of production and reproduction.
First, Frankfurtian theorists define reality in a systemic way, with no boundaries between society and communication, hence the traditional place of the study object is questioned, as an entity separated from the investigator. Hence, the search cannot be an uncritical and determinist process, but it must invest in a connection between theory and practice. Ultimately, this theoretical-practical correlation, which some call social practice, is the second feature and allows the scientific work to stay away from the margin of economic and political conditionings of real life, of from the conflict of interests these might cause.
Hence, in the study of the media reality nowadays, it is essential to know the nature of the entities participating in it, as well as their financing. The third and last feature of the Frankfurtian studies is the postulation that the truth exceeds the empirical, understood as a critic to those theories ignoring the social mediations and focusing its attention in simple technical employment of a method, hence reinforcing the functionalist perspective.
Due to the role of the treatment of relations between communication and society in terms of the cultural industry for both currents influenced by the critical theory, we will analyze. The expression implies a negative reconsideration of the modern concept of culture as context to the symbolic makings of society and that had been associated with the creative capacity, collective liberty and human progress.
All mass culture under the monopoly is identical, and its inner structure — the conceptual frame made by it — begins to be drawn. Leaders are not yet interested in hiding such frame. Its power increases, the more is revealed. The truth that they are nothing but business is an ideology for them that legitimizes the garbage they produce deliberately.
They call themselves industries and the numbers corresponding to their CEOs take down all doubts about the social need for their products Horkheimer and Adorno, However, among the many intellectual changes that have happened, cultural studies question the emphasis of PEC within the study of communication business and the strength of multinationals of information Mattelart, ; Mosco, Finally, to rethink the dialogue between the PEC and cultural studies, paying special attention to public communication policies also emphasizes the necessity for a social change in which the processes and social relations have a fundamental role, also the traditional tendency of the political economy in the study of social and institutional structures.
On his turn, Vicent Mosco defines the PEC as «the study of social relations, especially of power relations that those producing, distributing and consuming media keep» Mosco, 17 free translation. Communication and culture are more pertinent than ever since through them are possible to analyze the complex logics of hegemonic and counterhegemonic organization of communication.
According to Ann Cvetkovich and Douglas Kellner , politics and economy are the starting point for the communication study which means that cultural production and distribution have a place in a particular economic system, within a specific way of production and reproduction. Precisely this is one of the original hypotheses that brings the study object closer to such theory since, to analyze a certain media ecosystem, we must analyze the social production and reproduction made, as well as the role of media as producers and distributors of culture.
The study of economy-related to communication, information and culture detain a strategic function associated to development processes and economic growth, such as the current situation of «economy-world» globalization, where large media companies have a fundamental role.
Using the didactical resource propose by Marques de Melo 54 and ss. The studies of the observed communicational processes under an economic view emerge in the seventies of the 20th century when there is a concern with the phenomena of commercialization of press. The critic to such research group, from the reinterpretation of the political economy of capitalism, focusing on the «symbolic goods industry, which most evident feature is its transactional profile and which defiant enigma remains as the imperialistic vocation» Marques de Melo, 16 , is fundamental to the examination of such current.
We must mention the economist Harold Innis , within the configuration of this perspective of the PEC, for being the first author that associates economy with communication, paying special attention to the international informational flows and how these influence politics. His line of thought has influenced his disciple Marshall McLuhan and his image is still central to the comprehension of the critical theory.
Moragas claims that the modern PEC in Latin America, Europe and the United States «presents significant differences, though evermore convergent in their institutional positions and academic networks» and that they «coincide at a point: sign their moral commitment, as intellectuals, with the democratization of communication» Moragas free translation.
Hence, though there are important exceptions, the American, European and Latin American approaches are different «in such way as they must get a distinctive treatment» Mosco 62 and ss. The concern with the size and the increasing power of multinational communication companies constrain the American PEC, namely in works of names such as Dallas Smythe and Herbert Schiller.
The two scholars, of the University of Illinois, influenced several generations of political economists, turning their work towards the social class and the imperialism of the media. Furthermore, the American stream of thought is different due to its concern related to the political activism to change the dominant media and create alternatives Wasko , which includes defending a new international economic, informational and communicational order Mosco At what price?
Among the most influential works, there is those of Garnham , concerning the power of the class, and those of Raymond Williams , on the integration of communication institutions within the capitalist economy. The second European view could be led by Armand Mattelart , a, b, , , who understands communication as one of the main resources to the resistance to power Mosco The rise of this sort of research is not only a consequence of the vigour charged by ULEPICC but also of the increasing number of publications and analysis of Latin American cases.
This era is marked in this region by civic-military dictatorships, the economic instability and, in the communicational field, the political defeat of NOMIC, which has caused a fundamental effect to the development of mass media and its posterior analysis in the region.
This reductionist view of the media role in society was contested from the political economy which, though assuming the importance of the economic structure in the functioning of media and, especially the need to analyze it, insisted I am not committing the error of a mechanist transference of the media. On the other hand, studies on the economy of media maintain the distance from the theories proclaiming an excessive autonomy from the ideological or political layers, eliminating any influence of economic relations in the process of significance.
Retrieved el 27 de Diciembre de Having the political economy of communication as a theoretical frame were we fit different perspectives to study communication and culture; it seems obvious to think in the relationship between mass media and studies of public politics on communication to rethink such fundaments of the PEC, according to the respective necessities of public authorities of citizenship and media in the economy-world today.
The necessity to transcend the traditional fragmentation of scientific knowledge in distinct currents places the PEC in a privileged situation that inspires sociological functionalism of Mass Communication Research, though also the social theory of information and the reinterpretation of cultural studies according to an opening to the creation of bonds with other theories.
In this sense, the transversal logic of communication studies, when it is the instruments that analyze the contemporary informative processes, it promotes a new theoretical stand which breaks all frontiers between systems and brings the PEC closer to the cultural studies according to the critical theory. Dialogue between the PEC and the CS Cultural studies have been a fundamental source to studies in communication in general, and to the Political Economy of Communication in particular, providing diverse epistemological frameworks to understand communication and media which, unlike PEC, have supported an approach focused on subjectivity or on how people interpret the world Mosco During the past century, these studies expanded.
The British School of Cultural Studies reinterprets the previous postulations, through the idea that the development of capitalism and the industrial scheme of production of cultural goods has a pernicious effect on traditional ways of culture, either within the academic culture, of elite or popular.
This current focus its interest in the reactions among individuals and gives them a core role, making them the study object in their works. Therefore, it examines the cultures typical of specific groups, such as young people and workers; the contents and the reception of media, to consider social structures and historical contexts as essential factors to comprehend mass media, granting great importance to the global structure and the specific circumstances of each context.
The investigation from the Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies CCCS , will come from the works of founder and director of the center, Richard Hoggart and of the reflexive sensitivity of a world suffering of several mutations in the same moment of its description and theorization Owen The work of Raymond Williams, The Long Revolution, steps away from the precious tradition, and it concerns the importance of culture in relation to the remaining social practices.
To understand the dialogue among the PEC, one must emphasize some issues, such as the challenge presented by the study of popular cultures. Williams or Thompson knew how to give attention to the dominated cultures, without being taken away by the acritical indulgence. From this sort of studies saw themselves expanding considerably, and notions such as «genre» and «ethnicity» began to be studied. It enhances, in theory, comes with the revalorization of the subject or individual, associated mainly to the media Mattelart and Neveu, and ignoring the critic to structural reasons that originate processes of social inequality, which are also approached in the PEC.
This concern for the opinion of individuals and its interaction with the audiences sets the basis to, years later, begin to worry about issues that until the moment were considered lesser, such as genre, race and ethnicity, as well as the relation between these factors and the social class and power relations. In this sense, the media act upon the psychological processes in the sense that it creates images, representations and models of the social reality.
For him, researchers display a great motivation into the search for observation and comprehension methods of real publics, namely with ethnographic techniques. This change in the theory is inseparable from the imprint left in Great Britain by other phenomena at the time, namely the role of Margaret Thatcher in the conservative twist of politics, primarily in what concerns privatizations and deregulation, what as caused confrontations with syndicates, the modification of economic variable, etc.
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